Contemplations of a Restless Mind

Adventures and Tales of Jessie T. Ponce

Tropical Fruit Facts and Legends: Durian – Asia’s Notorious King of Fruits

8 Comments

A Legendary Fruit

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

A pile of ripe durian fruits

Perhaps the most notorious of Asian tropical fruits; the durian (pronounced /ˈdjʊriən/) attracts both extreme adoration and intense disgust from fruit eaters.  The only ‘fault’ of this controversial fruit,  widely known and revered in Southeast Asia as the “king of fruits”; is probably its blatant violation of the common expectation that ‘great food always smells great’.

A legend in Thailand tells of how the durian was the most beautiful, fragrant, and delicious of all fruits when a wise hermit presented its seed to the king.  The king accepted the fruit but did not properly thank the hermit so, in anger, the hermit cursed the durian tree, and thence the fruit grew ugly thorns and began to emit a foul stench alth0ugh its heavenly taste and magical powers remained.  Other folktales in Southeast Asia such as the legend of Orang Mawas, the Malaysian version of Bigfoot, and Orang Pendek, its Sumatran version, claim that these fantastic creatures regularly  feast on durian.

Heavenly Taste

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

Cross-section of a durian fruit

The taste of durian (Durio zibethinus) is often described in superlatives.  This is true even among the early Western explorers who have tried this fruit upon visiting the Far East.  Indeed, one traveller from 1599 writes: “it is of such an excellent taste that it surpasses in flavour all other fruits of the world”. Probably the most-quoted description of the flavour of the durian is the one written by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace in 1856:  “The five cells are silky-white within, and are filled with a mass of firm, cream-coloured pulp, containing about three seeds each. This pulp is the edible part, and its consistence and flavour are indescribable. A rich custard highly flavoured with almonds gives the best general idea of it, but there are occasional wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, onion-sauce, sherry-wine, and other incongruous dishes. Then there is a rich glutinous smoothness in the pulp which nothing else possesses, but which adds to its delicacy. It is neither acid nor sweet nor juicy; yet it wants neither of these qualities, for it is in itself perfect. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop. In fact, to eat Durians is a new sensation worth a voyage to the East to experience. … as producing a food of the most exquisite flavour it is unsurpassed.”

Hellish Odor

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

The technique in opening a durian fruit

On the other hand, the odour of durian is often described with revulsion and has led to the fruit’s banishment from certain hotels and public transportation in Southeast Asia.  Wallace was probably being diplomatic when he said that “the smell of the ripe fruit is certainly at first disagreeable” but other westerners more graphically described the smell as: “like eating sweet raspberry blancmange in the lavatory”; “completely rotten, mushy onions”; “as if you’d been French-kissing your dead grandmother” and   “best described as pig-shit, turpentine and onions, garnished with a gym sock”.   Perhaps the phrase that summarises all these descriptions of the ‘king of the fruits’ is the one being used in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines: that the durian “tastes like heaven but smells like hell”.

A Large, Spiky Fruit

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

A durian fruit is large and quite heavy

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

The durian’s spikes are sharp and sturdy

The other characteristic that contributes to its notoriety, aside from its heavenly taste and hellish odour, is the combination of its large size and formidable thorn-covered husk. The fruit can grow as large as 12 inches long and 8 inches in diameter and can weigh up to 5 kilograms. Its round or oblong shell, usually green to brown in colour, is covered with sharp, sturdy spikes that further makes handling difficult. A faint line that marks the cell divisions converges at the bottom of the fruit.  Small cracks show at the convergence point when the fruit is ripe.  A knife is usually wedged between these cracks to break it open but, to the untrained, this can be a big challenge as the fruit’s spikes and its size prevent it from being held comfortably with bare hands.

Tall Tree

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

A young, grafted durian tree planted by a pond

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

Durian flower buds

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

Unripe durian fruit hanging from the tree

Furthermore, a durian fruit falling on a person’s head can cause serious injuries because it is heavy, armed with sharp thorns, and can fall from a significant height. The native durian tree can grow up to more than 60 feet high and usually takes 8 to 10 years to bear fruit but, in the last 10 to 15 years, modern technology has greatly improved the cultivation process and the quality of fruits.  Present grafted varieties bear bigger and better fruits within five years and, in a young tree, the fruits are usually within arm’s reach.  In old farming methods, durian farmers just wait for the ripe fruit to fall off from the tree and it is widely believed that the fruit falls only at night when there is less chance of it falling on somebody.  Thus, in those days, it was not advisable to loiter under durian trees especially at night as the fruit may fall on you and cause serious injuries but, at present, the danger of doing so also includes the possibility of actually bumping into the spiny fruit in the dark.  The old farming method was probably the context of an Indonesian saying, ketiban durian runtuh, which translates to “getting a fallen durian” or receiving an unexpected luck or fortune. A durian that falls off the tree continues to ripen for two to four days, but after five or six days most would consider it overripe and unpalatable.

An Aphrodisiac

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

Durian fruits on display in Davao City

It is also widely believed that the durian has aphrodisiac qualities.  A saying in Indonesiandurian jatuh sarung naik, meaning “the durians fall and the sarongs come up”, refers to this belief.  Southeast Asian folk beliefs, as well as traditional Chinese medicine, consider the durian fruit to have warming properties liable to cause excessive sweating.  The traditional method to counteract this is to pour water into the empty shell of the fruit after the pulp has been consumed and drink it. An alternative method is to eat the durian in accompaniment with mangosteen, which is considered to have cooling properties. Pregnant women or people with high blood pressure are traditionally advised not to consume durian. Coffee, brandy or other alcoholic beverages are also considered a big NO after eating durian.  Aside from causing indigestion and bad breath, taking alcohol with durian is believed to stimulate high blood pressure. Several medical investigations on the validity of these beliefs have been conducted with varying conclusions, although a study by the University of Tsukuba finds that the fruit’s high sulphur content causes the body to inhibit the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, causing a 70% reduction of the ability to clear toxins from the body.

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

A fruit vendor offering a large variety durian in South Cotabato, Philippines

The edible portion of the fruit, known as the aril and usually referred to as the “flesh” or “pulp”, only accounts for about 15-30% of the mass of the entire fruit.  According to references, the durian fruit also contains a high amount of sugarvitamin Cpotassium, and the serotonergic amino acid tryptophan, and is a good source of carbohydratesproteins, and fats. It is recommended as a good source of raw fats by several raw food advocates, while others classify it as a high-glycemic food, recommending to minimise its consumption.

.

.

Flavoring Many Asian Dishes

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

Bags of durian candies on display in Davao City

Southeast Asians use durian fruit to flavour a wide variety of sweet edibles such as traditional Malay candy, ice kacangdodol, rose biscuits, and, with a touch of modern innovation, ice creammilkshakesmooncakesYule logs and cappuccino  Pulut Durian is glutinous rice steamed with coconut milk and served with ripened durian. In Sabah, red durian is fried with onions and chilli and served as a side dish.   Ikan brengkes is fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, traditional in Sumatra.  Tempoyak refers to fermented durian, usually made from lower quality durian that is unsuitable for direct consumption.  Tempoyak can be eaten either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and can also be used for making curry.  Sambal Tempoyak is a Sumatran dish made from the fermented durian fruit, coconut milk, and a collection of spicy ingredients known as sambal.  Unripe durians may be cooked as a vegetable, except in the Philippines, where all uses are sweet rather than savoury. Malaysians make both sugared and salted preserves from durian. When durian is minced with salt, onions and vinegar, it is called boder.

Other Uses

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

A basket full of durian

Other parts of the durian fruit are likewise useful. The durian seeds can be eaten whether they are boiled, roasted or fried in coconut oil, with a texture that is similar to taro or yam, but stickier.  In Java, the seeds are sliced thin and cooked with sugar as a confection. Young leaves and shoots of the durian are occasionally cooked as greens. Sometimes the ash of the burned rind is added to special cakes.  The petals of durian flowers are eaten in the North Sumatra province of Indonesia, while in the Moluccas islands the husk of the durian fruit is used as fuel to smoke fish. The nectar and pollen of the durian flower that honeybees collect is an important honey source, but the characteristics of the honey are unknown.

.

.

.

Durian Producers and Name-Bearers

Jessie T. Ponce Photography

Durian City: a durian sculpture welcomes visitors at the Davao City International Airport

The durian is native to BruneiIndonesia and Malaysia but there is still some debate as to whether the durian is native or was introduced to the Philippines, particularly in Davao region in the island of Mindanao.  Interestingly, although the durian is not native to Thailand, the country is currently a major exporter of durian, followed only by Malaysia and Indonesia.   In these countries, annual festivals are being held with the durian as the main feature.  The World Durian Festival is held in Chantaburi in Thailand in early May each year; Penang’s Durian and Fruits Festival is held in June; Davao City’s Kadayawan Festival which strongly features the durian is celebrated in August; while the  Durian Festival in Tagum City (also in Davao Region) is held in September.  Other places where durian farms are located include CambodiaLaosVietnamMyanmarIndiaSri Lanka, the West IndiesFloridaHawaiiPapua New Guinea, the Polynesian IslandsMadagascar, southern China (Hainan Island), northern Australia, and Singapore.  “The Big Durian” is the nickname of Jakarta, Indonesia; Davao City in the Philippines is often referred to as “Durian City; and  the oddly shaped Esplanade building in Singapore is often called “The Durian” by locals.   

Advertisements

Author: Jessie T. Ponce

A traveller and avid, almost obsessive, photographer; I prefer the off-the-beaten-track over tourist-laden hubs, a rural paradise over a five-star urban haven, the simple and uncomplicated over the glitzy and glamorous --- if only life allows one to choose!

8 thoughts on “Tropical Fruit Facts and Legends: Durian – Asia’s Notorious King of Fruits

  1. Pingback: Durian | A Traveller's Tale

  2. Massive fruit – never eaten or seen before – and I have been on Mindanao. Excellent post.

  3. Does it really taste good? My son and a friend tried to eat it and thought it was foul, so I’m thinking they may have eaten a part that wasn’t supposed to be eaten as you mention that only a small percentage is edible. What’s the secret to getting the “heavenly taste? Excellent post, by the way, and always enjoy your photos.

  4. OK, I admit that I haven’t tasted durian. And this is after living in Toronto and Vancouver where we do have large Asian populations with grocery stores.

  5. My favorite fruit in the world… 🙂 The smell is intoxicating to me.

  6. Dear Editor, Author, or persons authorized to give copyright permission.
    I am writing to you to get the permission to use your articles in my book The Foodpedia Fresh Fruits and Vegetables books series and other books will follow, on the history of other items in the food world. That will help the people of the world to eat and stay Healthier.
    I care and I hope you care about passing on to the new generation to stay Healthier.
    (REMEMBER SHARING IS CARING!)
    I am writing these books to “give back” my knowledge to the next generation of people, all over this world. I am writing these books to educate the people about the advantages of eating “Fresh Fruits” and “Fresh Vegetables” and how they can help themselves to have a healthier body, and the foods that are not good for a healthy body.
    I got your name from the website. On the Fruit you wrote about. I have your name on the information that I used, so that you will get all the credit on it. I do not want the credit for your works. You’re the one that did all the research on the food items. I have to rely on you for all this knowledge and your researchers.
    I praise you for this, that is why I want you to get all the credit you put in to these articles.
    I have to rely on your help to teach and training our next generation to live healthier. Then living on all this junk food and all the chemical’s they put into the foods we eat today.
    That is why we are the product of this generation of obesity etc. We have to help our new generation to eat and stay healthier so they can have a better life, then being sick and overweight all the time.
    The world is changing and we have to change with it NOW for our kid’s sake.
    This is the 21st Century NOW, and we have to do something about it NOW!
    I am on a movement (mission) of caring and share to help, not to make the same mistake this generation and our pass generations has made, to help them live healthier lives better then we did.
    But I need your help to get this mission (movement) going. I need your permission to let this happen, to use your research in food, to train and educate the people of the world to eat healthier.
    Remember the people will go to your website for more updates. Because you are always updating it, that I cannot do.
    Can you please e-mail the permission letter to authorize me to use your articles in my books (The History of Fresh Fruits. { Foodpedia The History of Fresh Fruit }) I have about 166 chapters of some of the fresh fruit used around the world, with over 5,000 color and about 5,000 pages).
    Can you please email {foodpediapjh@gmail.com } with your permission to use your articles so we can help the this and the next generation to live and be healthier.
    Thank You Chef Paul J. Hintersteiner
    Enclosed is the website of the articles I need permission on

    https://jessieponce.wordpress.com/2013/05/15/tropical-fruit-facts-and-legends-durian-asias-notorious-king-of-fruits/

    Hi This is the second time I am writing you to get permission to you your article(s) in my book The History of Fresh Fruit. From all over the world. Can you please send me the permission. Thank You Paul

    PS: the people of the world should know this, so they can live a better and Healthier life. I am on quest to help this and the next generation. I hope you will join me on the quest. Thank You Paul

    I love this saying (“The duty of a good Cuisinier is to transmit to the next generation everything he has learned and experienced.”
    Fernand Point, 1941) So I am not the only that believes in this Chef Paul

  7. I have sent you over 6 email and I have not heard from you on my request on one of your articles on fruit Please reply I want it finish my books.

    https://jessieponce.wordpress.com/2013/05/15/tropical-fruit-facts-and-legends-durian-asias-notorious-king-of-fruits/

    Dear Editor, Author, or persons authorized to give copyright permission.
    
I am writing to you to get the permission to use your articles in my book The Foodpedia Fresh Fruits and Vegetables books series and other books will follow, on the history of other items in the food world. That will help the people of the world to eat and stay Healthier. 
I care and I hope you care about passing on to the new generation to stay Healthier.


    (REMEMBER SHARING IS CARING!)
I am writing these books to “give back” my knowledge to the next generation of people, all over this world. I writing these books to educate the people about the advantages of eating “Fresh Fruits” and “Fresh Vegetables” and how they can help themselves to have a healthier body, and the foods that are not good for a healthy body.


    I got your name from the website. On the Fruit you wrote about. I have your name on the information that I used, so that you will get all the credit on it. I do not want the credit for your works.
    You’re the one that did all the research on the food items. I have to rely on you for all this knowledge and your researchers.
I praise you for this, that is why I want you to get all the credit you put in to these articles.
I have to rely on your help to teach and training our next generation to live healthier. Then living on all this junk food and all the chemical’s they put into the foods we eat today.
That is why we are the product of this generation of obesity etc. We have to help our new generation to eat and stay healthier so they can have a better life, then being sick and overweight all the time.
The world is changing and we have to change with it NOW for our kid’s sake.
This is the 21st Century NOW, and we have to do something about it NOW!

    I am on a movement (mission) of caring and share to help, not to make the same mistake this generation and our pass generations has made, to help them live healthier lives better then we did.
But I need your help to get this mission (movement) going. I need your permission to let this happen, to use your research in food, to train and educate the people of the world to eat healthier.
Remember the people will go to your website for more updates. Because you are always updating it, that I cannot do.
Can you please e-mail the permission letter to authorize me to use your articles in my books (The History of Fresh Fruits. { Foodpedia The History of Fresh Fruit }) I have about 166 chapters of some of the fresh fruit used around the world, with over 2,000 color pictures and about 5,000 pages),
10-12 volumes.
    Can you please email {foodpediapjh@gmail.com } with your permission to use your articles so we can help the this and the next generation to live and be healthier.
Thank You Chef Paul J. Hintersteiner 
Enclosed is the website of the articles I need permission on

    https://jessieponce.wordpress.com/2013/05/15/tropical-fruit-facts-and-legends-durian-asias-notorious-king-of-fruits/

    I am on a quest to safe the next generation from our generation with all the poison that was used and is still put into our food.
    I am asking you to join this quest to save this and the next generation, and to have a healthier life. Chef Paul

    

Hi This is the second time I am writing you to get permission to you your article(s) in my book The History of Fresh Fruit. From all over the world. Can you please send me the permission.
    Thank You Paul



    PS: the people of the world should know this, so they can live a better and Healthier life. I am on quest to help this and the next generation. I hope you will join me on the quest. Thank You Paul



    I love this saying (“The duty of a good Cuisinier is to transmit to the next generation everything he has learned and experienced.”
Fernand Point, 1941)
    So I am not the only that believes in this Chef Paul

    This the six times I have tried to in touch with you and it address under deliverable, and no email address send to.

    I hope some one get this and pass it on to the right department . Thank You Chef Paul

Thanks for viewing this post. Would love to hear what you think.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s